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ARQUEOLOGIA MAYA - CALENDARIO MAYA - ASTROLOGIA MAYA  ZODIACO SIGNOS MAYAS
(english explanation of Mayan calendar)

Fin de una  ERA comienzo de una nueva

El dia 21 de Diciembre de 2011,comienza el año 5128 del quinto sol en el calendario solar maya el cual comenzó en  13 de Agosto del 3114 que de acuerdo a estudios cientificos es el final de una era para la civilaxión Maya.
Segun el cientifico Guatemalteco Ivan Azurdia  el día  Deciembre 21 2012 el sistema solar alineara los planetas verticalmente con algunas de los sitios sagrados Mayas
Esta teoría es muy difundida pero debemos recordar que esto sucede con mas frecuencia que la de la era Maya con lo cual no está muy claro cual alineamiento destacaban los Mayas en su época

Explicando el Calendario MAYA

La cuenta del calendario Maya comienza en Agosto 11, 3114 AC.  Ese momento fue  4 Ahau 8 Cumku (kumku). Se supone que estó culminará en otro  4 Ahau 8 Cumku.

Nuestro calendario Gregoriano comienza en el año del nacimiento de Jesucristo, que con ciertas correcciones posteriores y ajustes demuestran que nacio imperfecto y fue corrigiendose con el tiempo.

No sabemos cual fue la razón por la cual determinaron el comienzo en 4 Ahau 8 Cumku pero si podemos ver que elcalendario marca un período más extenso que nuestro calendario con mejor perfeccíon y sin corrección necesesaria a lo largo de más de 5,000 años.

Esta era o período que esta culminando fue para los Mayas la quinta era con lo cual la que comenzará en e;l 2012 será la sexta era Maya.

Su calendario se basó en dos medidas del tiempo la de las estrellas y la de la agricultura que estaba basada en el maiz y sus ciclos de cosecha.
Para solucionarlo juntaron los dos calendario el astronomico estelar o calendario civil HAAB  con el calendario espiritual sagrado  TZOLKIN

El calendario TZOLKIN

Es un calendario de 260 días elegidos como el periodo para cultivar el maiz y fue dividido en 30 períodos de 20  simbolos cuyos nombres son:  imix, ik akbal, kan, chiccan. cimi, manik, lamat, mucuk, oc, chuen, eb, ben, ix, men, cib, caban, etznab, cauac y ahau
Ver las figura en la imagen.

El Calendario cuenta entonces del 1 al 13 rotando los 20 simbolos de la siguiente forma:

MES  (UINAL)

 1 imix
 2 ik
 3 akbal
 4 kan
 5 chiccan
 6 cimi
 7 manik
 8 lamat
 9 mucuk
10 oc
11 chuen
12 eb
13 ben
 1 ix
 2 men
 3 cib
 4 caban
 5 etznab
 6 cauac
 7 ahu

MES (UINAL)

 8 imix
 9 ik
10 akbal
11 kan
12 chiccan
13 cimi
 1 manik
 2 lamat
 
3 mucuk
.......

hasta completar los 260 días (kin)

Nombres de los días (KIN)  Mayas y su significado

Imix
IK
Akbal
Kan
Chicchan
Cimi
Manik
Lamat
Muluc
Oc
Chuen
Eb
Ben
Ix
Men
Cib
Caban
Eznab
Cauac
Ahau
Dragon de mar
Aire vida
Noche
Maiz
Serpiente
Muerte
Ciervo
Conejo
Lluvia
Perro
Mono
Escoba
Caña
Jaquar
Pajaro
Buho
Tierra
Cuchillo espejo
Tormenta
Señor

tzolkin days dias mayas

 

El Calendario HAAB

Este Calendario tiene 18 períodos (meses) de 20 dias totalizando 360 días  más 1 mes extra de 5 días  totalizando los 365 días del año (TUN)
Podemos ver a continuación los nombres de los 19 períodos de la siguiente forma:

MONTH NAMES

Pop
1_pop.gif (4416 bytes)
Uo
2_uo.gif (5108 bytes)
Zip
3_zip.gif (4959 bytes)
Zotz
4_zotz.gif (5087 bytes)
Tzec
5_tzec.gif (3866 bytes)
Xul
6_xul.gif (3596 bytes)
Yaxkin
7_yaxkin.gif (4663 bytes)
Mol
8_mol.gif (3640 bytes)
Chen
9_chen.gif (2036 bytes)
Yax
10_yax.gif (1967 bytes)
Zac
11_zac.gif (2044 bytes)
Ceh
12_ceh.gif (1911 bytes)
Mac
13_mac.gif (1967 bytes)
Kankin
14_kank.gif (1924 bytes)
Muan
15_muan.gif (2138 bytes)
Pax
16_pax.gif (1867 bytes)
Kayab
17_kayab.gif (1828 bytes)
Cumku
18_cumku.gif (1745 bytes)
Uayeb
19_uayeb.gif (2041 bytes)
 

 

1 TUN = 360 dias
20 TUN = 1 KATUN   7,200 DIAS
20 KATUN = 1 BAKTUN  144,000
20 BAKTUN = 1 PICTUN  2,880,000
20 PICTUN = 1 CALABTUN  57,600,000
20 CALABTUN = 1 KINCHILTUN 1,152,000,000
20 KINCHILTUN = 1 ALAUTUN  23,040,000,000 DIAS 

Estos 9 períodos de tiempo fueron usados en los jeroglificos mayas para indicar períodos de tiempo en los hechos relatados

Integrando los dos calendarios tenemos  dias como:  12 ik 0 pop

El calendario HAAB comienza en 0 pop 

 

MAYAN ASTROLOGY  &  ZODIAC SIGNS comparison

Mayan constelations - Solar calendar - Tzolkin - Mayan Calendar

Mayan constelations solar calendar

Mayan sites to visit on this Mayan new era

CHICHEN ITZA   (Reserve a Chichen Itza Tour)

The entire Yucatan Peninsula used to be sprawling with Maya settlements. Over time, the jungle reclaimed its territory, but the hundreds of mounds dotting the Yucatan peninsula show what once was. Each of these mounds is the ruin of a Maya building, covered with earth and foliage over many centuries. Many of these sites still await excavation, but several have been uncovered and Chichen-Itza is among the most beautiful.

The ancient city covers a six square mile area on the peninsula, about 80 miles east of Merida. The first major buildings to be built at Chichen-Itza were begun in roughly 600 A.D. There are numerous well-restored and fascinating buildings on the site. Perhaps the most magnificent is El Castillo (the castle), otherwise known as the Pyramid of Kukulcan. The collosal pyramid is topped by a square temple, in which ritual sacrifices were made. Contrary to the popular belief that the Maya were a peaceful tribe, they were, in fact, very warlike and conducted many religious sacrifices. The pyramid also reflects the advanced skills the Maya had in astronomy. The total number of steps on the building is 365, and on the vernal and autumnal equinoxes, the sun casts a shadow on the pyramid which resembles a huge snake slithering down the front staircase. The Temple of the Warriors is another interesting building on the site.

 The temple closely resembles the architectural styles of the Toltecs, but researchers are still debating whether the Maya copied to style from the Toltecs or the Toltecs copied the style from the Maya. The latter is more likely, as the Maya had been established and powerful for many centuries at the time of the Toltecs’ rise to power. The Maya were avid sports fans, judging from the 22 ball courts found on the site. The largest of these, known simply as the great ball court, is 270 feet long, has sloping walls, and two small temples, one at each end.

It was not uncommon to offer a human sacrifice to the gods before a game. The sport was very serious to the Maya. Often, the captain of one team was sacrificed at the end of the match, but curiously, due to the honor the Maya gave those who were sacrificed, historians are unable to determine whether the winner or loser was sacrificed. Regardless, the great ball court is a fascinating location on the site. Carved in relief on one wall is the image of a player being decapitated. Another interesting aspect of the court is the temple at the north end, known as the Temple of the Bearded Man.

The acoustics of this temple, whether done on purpose or by accident, allow a person talking in a normal speaking voice to be heard far down the court. There are several theories as to why this might be. It could have served as a “dugout” of sorts for a team coach to send commands to his players, or it could have served as a “press booth” from which a spectator could report the events to the common masses outside, who were not allowed to watch the game. These are just a few of many wonders Chichen-Itza has to offer. Should you visit, one full day can provide you with an overview, but to truly see the ancient city, plan a two-day excursion.

 

TULUM   (Reserve a Tulum Tour)

The archaeological park of Tulum is located to the east of the state of Quintana Roo, which is situated on the eastern portion of Yucatán Peninsula. Flying distance from Mexico City to Cancun is two hours and from Cancun you may drive 128 kilometers south on federal road number 307 and it should take an hour and fifty minutes to reach there.

The name of Tulum, apparently coined early in the 20th century, refers to the walls that surround the site on three sides, since Tulum is Mayan for fence, enclosure, or wall. However, it is believed that it was originally called "zama", dawn, an apt name indeed for his east coast city where the sunrise in beheld daily. This pre-columbian city is built upon a scarp which rises abruptly from the Caribbean sea. Its ruins stretch along the coast for almost four miles. In its heyday, Tulum, served as an important port town linking up the sea and inland trade which played a basic role in its economy.

Out on the coast of Mexican Caribbean, located almost opposite the island of Cozumel, the Tulum archaeological site proudly displays the architecture treasures of the Mayas in a lush jungle setting typical to the area. Now a National Park covering over 1600 acres, the site of the contemporary Tulum ruins forms part of a major Mayan city of the post-classical period. With recesses containing images of flowers and animals carved in colored stucco. Tulum is unique in that it is the only archaeological site of such magnitude located on the coast. In itself, this adds to the attraction due to its fabulous beaches and turquoise waters ideal for diving. The castle highlights among these, crowned with pilasters of toltec culture influence. Temple V has a unique shape as their walls are slanted toward the outside. It also contains paintings very well preserved. Over the door stands out a figure of the descending god. The temple of the Frescos (pinkness) is decorated with a noticeable estucco mask at the eastern angle. You still can admire inside the remainders on the wall paintings that seems to reproducer some code pages. Down the cliffs, you will find one of the most beautiful beaches in the world.

In Tulum, you may explore the site, camp and shop for the typical and archaeological pieces, also you may enjoy the Papantla flyers ceremony, this mexican rite is perform at the mall's levelled. You may enjoy a refreshing swim and get a nice suntan at the beautiful beaches and crystal water.

Once you get to Tulum it is advisable to hire a guide. This way you will learn history and legends of the area. Light clothing and comfortable shoes are advisable as you may have long walking periods and we recommend the use of sun blocks to avoid sunburn.
 

COBA

Coba is situated to the north of the state of Quintana Roo which is located to the southeast of the Mexican Republic. Flying time from Mexico City to Cancun is two hours and then is a paved road the archaeological zone of Coba, getting there by ground transportation in three hours.

Coba's urban sprawl covered a total area of at least 44 square miles. Within this vast territorial realm a number of monumental-size buildings were erected, as well as lesser structures and an extensive network of causeways. These stone roads interconnected the various clusters of buildings and Coba with other nearby or more remote ancient cities. Two of the latter were Yaxuna and Ixil, 60 and 11.5 miles away, respectively, in the modern states of Yucatán and Quintana Roo. The Mayans also carved stone slabs, their stelas, on which inscriptions recorded outstanding or special events stemming from the activities and achievements of their rulers. Today, over 30 stelas, several altars, and panels have been located. In this role as a key supplier of goods and services, Coba had full sway over a region today comprising the north of state of Quintana Roo. Coba's hegemony crumbled, new cities arose on the Caribbean coast, Tulum and Muyil.

Coba Cluster, one structure to be seen here is known as the Church, which owes its name to local hunters and farmers who visit it regularly to make offerings, pray, and light candles before the stela associated with this building. The Church pyramid, entered from the east side of the main plaza, is made up of nine rounded-corner levels which together give it a total height of 80 feet. On the north side of the east building there is a roofed tunnel with a Mayan vault that runs under one of the stone stairways leading to the top. The Coba Cluster also has a ball court. It is located north of the Church pyramid and consists of two edifices built on a north-south axis. The Unit of Paintings features buildings roofed with vaulting, at the ground level and the summits of the pyramid mass, which were constructed with recycled stones from the older buildings. Room interiors were decorated throughout with various pictorial motifs, from this grouping's name. The most recently restored group of buildings at Coba is the Nohoch Mul. This Myayn name means "big mound". The pyramid's seven levels have their corners rounded, and its height of 40 feet makes it the loftiest building in the north of the Yucatan Peninsula.

In Coba you may shop at the store situated at the entrance, and they sell several handcrafts and clothing from this region. For those excursionist, this is an ideal place, as its jungle is an invitation to explore. Coba is surrounded by places where you may camp.

Its advisable to wear light clothing and comfortable shoes as you will do a lot of walking. Take along mosquitoes repellent, as Coba is the middle of the jungle.

 

EK BALAM BONAMPAK YAXCHILAN

Ek Balam, also known as the City of the Black Jaguar, enigmatic archaeological site recently discovered is an ancient Mayan city ruin site. This ancient city reached the height of its importance from 600 to 900 CE until it was abandoned, has an unique style evident in the beauty of its walled buildings and well preserved sculptures.
After it was abandoned, it was literally engulfed by the surrounding jungle and only recently discovered and excavated. Ek Balam features four beautiful buildings with intricate Mayan carvings and sculptures, many of which are still very visible. Enjoy a hike and mountain bike ride through the Mayan paths, deep into the jungle of Nuevo Xcan Mayan Village, to find 3 spectacular adventure cenotes (sink holes)

Mundo Maya (The Mayan World)

In 1986, an extraordinary meeting took place between the governments of Mexico, Belize and Guatemala. The topic was the development of an ambitious, unprecedented cooperative project to unify the development of an enormous region inhabited by the Mayan culture. A year later El Salvador and Honduras joined the group and the first multi-national integrated tourism development project in the Americas was underway.

Despite some early setbacks, and inherent problems associated with an effort of this magnitude, Mexico has spearheaded the development of a "singular," unified tourism product that encourages travel across state and international boundaries to explore a region inhabited for over 2,000 years by the Mayan civilization. The effort strives to bring together Mexico's well-developed tourism infrastructure with lesser-known sites. Promotional programs aim to boost awareness of the Mayan World's many leisure/adventure travel options.
Major Archaeological Sites:
Palenque, Uxmal, Kabah, Chichen Itzá, Coba, Tulum
Lesser-Known Archaeological Sites:
Labna, Sayil, Edzna, Yaxchilan, Bonampak, Kohunlich, Colmalcalco

 


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